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7 Best Artificial Grass Cleaner for Pets (Get Rid of that Smell)

Artificial grass comes with the least maintenance, that’s true! But that doesn’t mean you can just leave it for the germs and bacteria to infest the ground with all their might. That’s why getting the top fake grass cleaner for pets is a matter of grave importance. 

Especially when you have pets that run and play on the turf and answer their nature calls on the turf, you aren’t left with any alternatives but to go with the best artificial grass cleaner for pets. 

They remove bad odors and keep the ground cleaner and safer for you and the family! 

Best Artificial Grass Cleaner for Pets 

As a part of our highly comprehensive guide, we’d like to present you with the best artificial grass cleaner for dog urine or cat urine to choose from. Let’s quickly find each one out right now! 

BioTurf BioS+ Artificial Turf Pet Odor Eliminator

BioTurf BioS+ Artificial Turf Pet Odor Eliminator Concentrate Value Pack; Organic, Non-Toxic, Eco-Friendly Enzyme Cleaner; Outdoor Use; 1 gallon and 32 oz Bottle with BioSiphon Sprayer
  • Scientifically formulated to get rid of the toughest pet odors in artificial grass, breaking down odor-causing proteins to eliminate odors instead of covering them up
  • BioS+ enzyme penetrating technology breaks down the ammonia and proteins that cause unpleasant pet waste smells and other organic and non-organic odors
  • Kid and pet-safe, this all-natural cleaner is enzymatic, biodegradable and non-toxic; Safe to use this commercial grade cleaner around plants so you can deodorize your dog’s entire backyard territory
  • Clean, fresh scent provides an immediate sense of relief, reducing the stink for your peace of mind without smelling too perfumey or fake; Includes BioSiphon Sprayer to attach to your garden hose
  • Industry leader in odor treatment and odor prevention caused by pet urine and feces, our product is useful in smaller spaces like pens and kennels, and larger yards and pet care facilities

First, in our long line of quality grass cleaners, we have TurFresh’s BioTurf Bios+ Plus. Let’s quickly find out the core characteristics of this fine item right now! 

Features

  • Moderate Size: Comes in a 32 oz bottle; it has an average capacity. 
  • Pet Safe: This item is safe to be used around pets
  • Plants Safe: This odor eliminator is okay to be used around plants 

If pet waste odor is something you’re struggling with, then an exceptional scientific formula is at your help! It does an intricate job of breaking down the odor-causing proteins, which gradually results in the complete removal of odor! 

It can wipe out both organic and non-organic smells through its sophisticated enzyme penetrating technology that eliminates the odor-causing ammonia!

Moreover, this professional-grade enzymatic cleaner is formulated naturally, so the solution stays bio-degradable and non-toxic. As a result, it’s safe to be used around the plants, keeping the front yard all nice and green while reducing all the smell to zero and adding freshness. 

In addition, it comes with a highly refreshing fragrance that can undoubtedly have a positive influence in terms of improving your mood! 

One issue that you may face is needing a substantial amount to cover the smell completely. However, this incredible odor eliminator should be a quality add-on for a cleaner turf specially designed to tackle pet wastes and urine. 

Pros 

  • Removes odor by breaking down proteins present in the smell-causing-substances 
  • Can remove both organic and non-organic smell by breaking down ammonia 
  • Highly biodegradable and safe to be used around plants and pets 
  • Adds a fresh, rejuvenating fragrance, covering the existing odor

Cons

  • It May require a substantial amount to make the yard completely smell-free

BioTurf BioS+ Artificial Turf Pet

BioTurf BioS+ Artificial Turf Grass Concentrate Enzyme Cleaner and Pet Odor Eliminator - Removes Odors and Sanitizes - Organic, Safe, Environmentally Responsible (1 Gallon) - Original Scent
  • Scientifically formulated to get rid of the toughest pet odors in artificial grass, breaking down odor-causing proteins to eliminate odors instead of covering them up
  • BioS+ enzyme penetrating technology breaks down the ammonia and proteins that cause unpleasant pet waste smells and other organic and non-organic odors
  • Industry leader in odor treatment and odor prevention caused by pet urine and feces, our product is useful in smaller spaces like pens and kennels, and larger yards and pet care facilities
  • Clean, fresh scent provides an immediate sense of relief, reducing the stink for your peace of mind without smelling too perfumey or fake

Here is another quality item by BioTurf Store. Let’s check out how it can fight the intense odor in your backyard. 

Features 

  • Large Quantity: Coming with 128 oz, this item offers a substantial capacity for long term use
  • Pet Safe: You can use it where pets roam 
  • Eco-friendly: Can be used near plants without causing much damage 

If you’re looking for a solution that can eliminate the odor by destroying it from the root, then here is what you should go for. Why? 

It can uproot the very foundation of the odor by breaking down the protein compounds present in the smell and disrupting the flow of the scent. 

It also kills off the ammonia in the waste. As a result of which, this incredible technology can stop the smell in its tracks before reaching your nose. 

Another highly valued potential present in the solution is its’ natural formulation mechanism. This particular item is a biodegradable and non-toxic formula. So, if you have trees in your backyard surrounding the turf, it won’t cause any trouble while applying it around trees and plants. 

In terms of offering the fragrance, it has an intense flavor that would immediately cover the traces of the previous smell. 

BioTurf specializes in preventing odors that arise from pet wastes. So, if you’re struggling with pet wastes like urine and feces, this is something you should bring home. 

One thing that it may struggle with is the urine smell. Sometimes the urine smell may be too strong to get rid of it completely.

But keeping aside the flaws, this incredible smell preventer can work effectively well in deodorizing your turf! 

Pros 

  • Uproots the smell from its’ starting point 
  • Changes and disrupts the smell’s foundation using chemical manipulation techniques 
  • Offers a refreshing fragrance 
  • It can be used around pets and plants 

Cons 

  • Can have issues with urine odor sometimes 

BioFill BioTurf Pet Deodorizer Granular Infill for Artificial Grass 

Sale
BioFill BioTurf Pet Deodorizer Granular Infill for Artificial Grass Turf, All Natural Dog Urine Neutralizer, Outdoor Use, 1 Gallon Pail
  • Scientifically formulated to neutralize the toughest pet odors in artificial grass, breaking down odor-causing proteins to eliminate odors instead of covering them up
  • BioFill acts like a sponge to break down odor and neutralize the smell, staying local until more waste is added to the area, so it helps dry up fresh messes quickly
  • Kid and pet-safe, this all-natural turf infill is biodegradable and non-toxic; Safe to use this commercial grade odor eliminator around plants so you can deodorize your dog’s entire backyard territory
  • Made of natural minerals, BioFill absorbs liquids and neutralizes compounds, acting like both a sponge and a magnet for your pet’s urine; Apply evenly and brush into your turf for best results
  • Industry leader in odor treatment and odor prevention caused by pet urine and feces, our product is useful in smaller spaces like pens and kennels, and larger yards and pet care facilities

Are you looking for something different to tackle the smell? Well, if you’re willing to try out new and unique ideas, then this particular deodorized infill mechanism can undoubtedly open up a new dimension. Let’s learn more about this incredible item! 

Features

  • Type: Comes as an infill to be spread on the fake grass blades 
  • Capacity: Comes with an 8 pound capacity in total 
  • Pet Friendly: Safe to use around pets 

This particular item has gone through a series of scientific tests and research to develop a unique formula that goes deep down in the chemical compounds of the smell and alters their processes to reduce the intensity to a certain extent! 

It’s an infill, so it stays inside the grass blades and acts like the pet litter solution that soaks up the smelly materials and locks up the smell. 

As a result, your turf remains dry while significantly reducing the smell down to a minimum. 

As it quickly absorbs the liquid substances, it should be an outstanding solution for offering credible protection against urine. It will soon soak up the urine and significantly reduce its efficiency in terms of spreading an odor. 

This incredible item is also safe to use with pets and plants, making it, even more, user-friendly and versatile! 

It may require a substantial amount of this infill deodorizer to work effectively, which is one of its drawbacks. 

But keeping aside the minor complaints, this should work outstandingly well on the whole and limit the smell before it even spreads. 

Pros 

  • Unique infill formula absorbs the liquid unlike anything else 
  • Cuts the smell down before it spreads 
  • Can manipulate the fragrance, causing elements to minimize the intensity of the smell 
  • Works effectively well against urine 

Cons 

  • May need to use a substantial amount for the desired effect 

NaturVet – Yard Odor Eliminator Plus

NaturVet – Yard Odor Eliminator Plus Citronella Spray – Eliminate Stool and Urine Odors from Lawn and Yard – Designed for Use on Grass, Patios, Gravel, Concrete & More – 64oz Refill (No Hose Nozzle)
  • LAWN CARE – Our pet odor eliminator can be sprayed on any outdoor surface to quickly eliminate stool and urine odors, works immediately on contact. Citronella leaves a fresh, clean scent.
  • MULTI-PURPOSE - Great for grass, plants, shrubs, patios, patio furniture, kennels, dog runs, swing sets, fences, block walls or any surface where odors arise due to pets.
  • EASY TO ADMINISTER - Refills the ready to use bottle that attaches to the garden hose for easily spraying outdoor surfaces, quickly eliminating odors from such places as dog runs, grass, planter boxes, patios, tree trunks, fences, and rocks.
  • MADE IN THE USA and VETERINARIAN FORMULATED - All NaturVet products are veterinarian formulated and manufactured in the USA in an FDA audited, cGMP compliant facility.
  • SATISFACTION GUARANTEED - All NaturVet products come with a 100% satisfaction guarantee so if you aren't satisfied for any reason you can get a full refund!

At the fourth spot in the list, we have an incredible item to talk about. If you’re looking for the best artificial grass cleaner for pets, then one should be a worthy consideration. Let’s find out what makes it so unique! 

Features

  • Moderate size: Comes with an average 60 oz capacity 
  • Application type: Has to be sprayed around the designated area 
  • Application surface: Can be applied on almost anywhere from artificial grass, dog runs, patios, swing sets, block walls, and fences 

One thing that you’d love about this incredible item is its sheer versatility. You can use it almost anywhere from the artificial grass to patio, furniture, plants, and kennels; it can be applied anywhere for immediate results! 

It’s an unbelievably effective solution that can transform the way you deal with smells. Whenever you find any place that is giving off unpleasant smells, this can wipe it out in an instant without any difficulties or challenges. 

Another positive about this outstanding odor eliminator is the fragrance. When the smell of pet waste clouds your house and living spaces, it can get somewhat impossible for anyone to enjoy breathing in the fresh air. 

But with this intelligent formula, you’d get a soothing, refreshing fragrance that would recharge and rejuvenate your mind for a productive day! 

One small thing that you may find a bit problematic is the fragrance. Some, due to their heightened sensitivity, may find the scent to be a bit strong. 

But keeping aside minor issues such as that, this is without a shadow of a doubt an effective odor remover you can have for your turf any day! 

Pros 

  • A highly versatile solution, ready to be used on nearly every surface where the smell is present 
  • Works stunningly well with pet wastes 
  • Outstandingly effective in terms of breaking the smell down fast and smooth
  • Comes with a refreshing fragrance 

Cons 

  • The fragrance may seem a bit strong for some 

Simple Green Outdoor Odor Eliminator

Simple Green Outdoor Odor Eliminator for Pets, Dogs, Ideal for Artificial Grass & Patio (32 oz Hose End Sprayer & 1 Gallon Refill)
  • Quickly removes odors left behind by urine, stool, vomit and other organic matter
  • Safe for use on grass, artificial turf, gravel, concrete, brick and more
  • Uses powerful, natural enzymes to eliminate odors at the source rather than cover them up
  • Safe for use around pets
  • Ideal for patios, decks, dog runs and yards

At the fifth spot here in our list is a premium-grade odor eliminator for unique individuals. If you’re dead serious about the odor, guests are coming, and the house is smelling like a stable, then this emergency kit is what you should go for. 

Features

  • Capacity: Comes with a 32 oz capacity for moderate use 
  • Application areas: Can be applied on the patio, artificial grass, concrete, and brick.
  • Solution Type: This unique formula will be a concentrated solution that would restructure the odor-causing elements for long term effect 

Well, nothing too complicated about this grass cleaner here. Just apply it on the stool, urine, or vomit and see the smell withering away instantly. 

It’s a professional-grade spray that works stunningly well if you need to get rid of the foul odor pretty quickly for particular purposes. 

It’s tremendously versatile as well, letting you use it on almost any sort of surface possible. Along with your artificial turf, you can also use it on gravel, natural grass, concrete, and brick! 

It comes with a uniquely authentic formula. Instead of covering up the odor with a superfluous fragrance, its enzymatic properties go into the smell-causing substances and eliminate the odor right at the beginning. 

On top of that, this incredible item can also be used while the pets are around. So, you won’t have to struggle with removing odors while harming the pets. 

One thing that can seem slightly problematic is that you may need to use too much of the solution to get the odor wholly removed. But, all things considered, this should be the thing that you must go for if you’re looking for the best fake turf cleaner.

Pros 

  • Works instantly on any pet waste odors 
  • Professional grade odor eliminator can be used for an emergency item before guests or friends come in
  • Can work on almost all sorts of surfaces 
  • Doesn’t cover up, instead destroys the smell from within by restructuring the molecules 

Cons 

  • May need to use a high amount for effective performance 

Microbe-Lift Outdoor Dog & Cat Odor Remover Spray 

MICROBE-LIFT Outdoor Pet Odor Eliminator For Strong Odor On Turf, Patios, Deck, and Lawns - Keeps Pets From Going in Same Spot, 32oz
  • COMPLETELY ELIMINATES PET ODOR - The Microbe-Lift Pet Odor Eliminator doesn't just cover up your dog poop or pee smell; this deodorizer turns the odor into carbon dioxide and water and completely removes it, it doesn't mask the smell with artificial fragrances
  • DETERS YOUR PET FROM USING THE SAME SPOT TO POOP OR PEE - This yard deodorizer contains deterrents that block the pheromones that draw your pet back to go to the bathroom in the same spot on your lawn, patio, or turf; constant bathroom use in isolated areas intensifies and spreads the odor over the entire yard
  • SAFE FOR USE ON ALL OUTDOOR SURFACES - Our dog and cat odor eliminator is the best deodorizer for any lawn, concrete, artificial turf, patio, deck, dog run, or carpet; it is alo an effective treatment for dead spots and embarrassing stains and smells
  • SIMPLE AND EASY TO USE – First, remove as much of the organic waste as possible; next, apply the spray liberally to the affected area; let it penetrate for 5 minutes before rinsing thoroughly with water; then, let the area air-dry before resuming activities
  • NO ADDITIONAL WATER NEEDED, JUST SPRAY AND GO: Microbe-Lift Outdoor Pet Odor Eliminator is a unique natural solution that is ready to use as soon as you open it; Our strong formula is highly concentrated and requires no additional water to use

If you’ve been looking for an all-around spray that works on almost all sorts of waste and smell odors, then here is an item that fits! 

Features

  • Capacity: Coming with a 32 OZ capacity, this should be an effective midterm solution. 
  • Waste Type: Tremendously versatile, including cats, dogs, and many other pets and their outdoor feces. 
  • Solution Type: Biological formulation with bacterial solution wipes out the odor from its’ roots

Well, the first thing you’d have to have a clear conception about is the masking and elimination. Many “odor remover” claims to get rid of smells, but all they do is put an artificial covering over the scent, and the substances would again start giving off a smell when the effect falls off. 

But the case is pretty different with this excellent odor eliminator. It has particular bacteria present in the formulation, which transforms the odor-causing elements into carbon dioxide and water, changing the very core structure of the wastes and doing away with the odor from its original starting points. 

Another unique factor with this spray is it works as a helpful deterrent. The pets are likely to use the same spot for answering their nature calls. Still, the unique solution has a distinctive feature of blocking the pheromones, which helps curb their level of attraction by overusing the same spot repeatedly. 

Furthermore, the cleaning solutions come in an integrated intelligent spray mechanism, which can be directly used on the spot without adding water and doing all the back-breaking days.

On top of all these, this incredible formulation can be used in a highly versatile manner. Both the cat and dog and an array of other pet wastes can be tackled with this one spray can! 

It also works on almost all sorts of surfaces, from carpet and concrete to synthetic turfs, dog runs and much other artificial grass surfaces or natural surfaces! 

You may have a slight issue with that; it can sometimes interfere with natural grass health upon application.

But, all the minor flaws aside, this should be an outstanding odor solution anytime! 

Pros 

  • Get the odors eliminated from the roots 
  • The biologically intelligent formula uses bacteria to restructure the smell causing molecules 
  • Unbelievable versatility works on both cat, dog, and pet wastes
  • Works on an array of different terrains, including turf, concrete, and natural grass
  • The intelligent spray mechanism makes it apply anywhere, anytime

Cons 

  • Natural grass can seem to encounter worsened conditions due to chemical elements 

ProVetLogic Kennel Turf Care

ProVetLogic Kennel & Turf Care- Floor Cleaner, Synthetic Pet Turf Cleaner, Deodorizer & Drain Maintainer (Concentrated)- 1/2 Gallon
  • ProVetLogic Kennel Care is a high performance, bacterial enriched floor cleaner, synthetic turf cleaner, odor eliminator, organic waste degrader and floor drain maintainer
  • ProVetLogic Kennel Care is a high performance, bacterial enriched floor cleaner, synthetic turf cleaner, odor eliminator, organic waste degrader and floor drain maintainer
  • For use by veterinary clinics, animal care facilities, zoos, pet shops, kennels, stables, farms, breeding and grooming establishments
  • The unique chemistry provides bleaching action (without the bleach) that brightens surfaces as it cleans and leaves surfaces sparkling clean with a pleasant scent
  • Recommended by top manufactures for cleaning concrete, ceramic tile, quarry tile, grout, brick, synthetic turf and rubber mats using either manual or mechanical methods

We have the ProVetLogic Kennel turf care to keep your artificial grass safer and cleaner in the final part. Let’s have a deeper look into this item. 

Features 

  • Capacity: With a total of over 4.41 pounds, this large pack should be a good deal for an extended use 
  • Bottle Type: Capped bottle comes without any sprayer 
  • Solution Type: This comes with a bacterial solution that works on a deeper level. 

One good thing about this incredible turf cleaner is it’s a biological cleaner. This gives it this fantastic opportunity to work in a more subtle and sophisticated manner than just covering up the smell with another fragrance. The bouquet may come back later. Being a bacterial agent, it should wipe the smell off from its roots. 

It’s a highly professional-grade turf care solution that is recommended to be used by professional zookeepers and pet shops so that you can guess the level of effectiveness it’d have in your backyard. 

Moreover, it also has bleaching properties which help brighten up the surface. So, if your turf gets a bit of a layer of filth discoloring the area, this one can get it wiped out too. 

The fragrance is essential too. Coming with a pleasant whiff, this cleaner would add a touch of sophistication and mood-boosting capabilities. 

It can be used on an array of different surface types starting from ceramic, grout, quarry tile, and most importantly, the regular synthetic turfs. 

One thing that you may find a bit problematic is the odor. It can happen that your pets may not be too fond of it. 

However, all things considered, this turf cleaner can indeed be a quality add-on anytime for an odor-free and cleaner house! 

Pros 

  • The biological cleaner works on the particle level to get the smells uprooted completely 
  • Professional grade turf cleaner is recommended for zoos and pet shops and should work unbelievably well in the house
  • Comes with bleaching properties to remove the waste leftover mark properly 
  • The highly versatile cleaner works on a variety of surfaces, including ceramic, quarry tile, grout, and artificial turfs 

Cons 

  • May come with a smell that bothers the people                                              

How To Clean Pet Urine From Artificial Grass

Getting the pet urine cleaned from artificial grass can be a challenge. But here are a few steps you can follow to get this stinky stuff off. 

  • First, get any remaining solid or hardened wastes from the area 
  • Then try to mop up the remaining liquid to make it dry up a bit 
  • Use your hose to hose it down with force 
  • Finally, get the best artificial grass spray. 

If you follow the steps mentioned above, it’d be pretty easy to get the urine off. 

How to Clean Artificial Grass Step by Step

Spot cleaning and Keeping the artificial grass cleaned is one of the crucial tasks you should have a firm grasp on. Let’s find out some of the best ways to clean artificial grass. 

Remove Large Debris

The first thing you should do is remove the more extensive and complex objects from the turf, so cleaning the more minor elements becomes easy. Use a rake to get the dust and debris off the surface quickly. Get the leaves out as they can clog water during rain. Check for hardened feces, and remove them cleanly, so they don’t get all over the place while hosing down. 

Check for Weeds, Moss and Mould

Weeds, Moss and Mould, three can be a severe concern for artificial grass solutions. Check out the fake grass cleaner reviews; you’d find users complaining about these disturbing plants and organisms.

That’s why routine check-ups should be done, and any growth of one of these should instantly be wiped out using chemical solutions or proper placement of weed barriers. 

Rinse with Garden Hose

When you’re done cleaning up the complex objects and sorting out other similar issues, it’s time to hose the area down. The power from the hose would detach the loosened-up tiny dust particles and drain them instantly for a sparkling, glittering finish. 

Hosing down the area is a good practice and should be done frequently to see the fake grass in optimum condition. 

FAQs

Why does your artificial grass smell of urine?

Pet Urine, be it for dogs or cats, comes with powerful chemical compounds that are difficult to obliterate. That’s why it gets challenging to remove the strong urine smell.  

How to Handle Artificial Turf Cleaning and Pet Odors?

Synthetic turf cleaning can be made easy if it’s done regularly. On the other hand, using effective odor removers can reduce the severity of the smell.  

Can Dogs Pee and Poop on Artificial Grass?

Yes, the lush green ground is something dogs would find inviting to answer their nature calls. But if your dog is trained to use the potty, there would be fewer possibilities of that happening. 

Sale
Artificial Grass Puppy Pee Pad for Dogs and Small Pets - 20x25 Reusable 3-Layer Training Potty Pad with Tray - Dog Housebreaking Supplies by PETMAKER
  • DOG GRASS PAD WITH TRAY - This artificial turf dog pee pad provides a sanitary place for your pet to relieve themselves inside or on your balcony or patio. It’s a reusable alternative to disposable dog training pads for small to medium-sized pets.
  • EASY PUPPY TRAINING - Potty training your new best friend just got easier, even if you live in an apartment or work long hours. This washable dog grass pad helps avoid accidents while enforcing your pup’s training that they should go potty on grass.
  • THREE-LAYER SYSTEM - The artificial dog grass mat sits on top of a secure plastic drainage insert that allows liquid to empty into the durable collection puppy pad holder to avoid messes and spills.
  • EASY CLEAN-UP - Cleaning this reusable grass pad for dogs is quick and easy. Rinse the three layers of the dog potty tray with soapy water and clean-up is complete.
  • PRODUCT DETAILS - Materials: Synthetic Plastic (Grass Mat) and Hard Plastic (Tray and Insert). Dimensions: (L) 25” x (W) 20” x (H) 1.25”. Color: Green and Black.

Is artificial grass cleaner safe around animals and humans?

Most of the cleaners have some chemicals in them. But, if you get the best one and those that come without physically damaging chemicals, it shouldn’t be an issue. 

Why do people use artificial grass more than natural grass?

People find the maintenance-free flexibility of artificial grass a lot more attractive than maintenance-dependent natural grass. Plus, cost-effectiveness is also a matter of consideration. 

Final Thoughts 

Well, in our highly detailed and intricately informative guide, we tried to talk about some of the highly effective and top fake grass cleaners for pets options that you can go ahead with. Further, we also included key-related information, so you get a complete understanding for a better purchase. 

In the guide, you can go for the biologically engineered Outdoor Odor Eliminator without a doubt for getting rid of the smell from its roots. NaturVet – Yard Odor Eliminator, on the other hand, would offer a moderate to balanced performance and should also be a good deal. 

Moreover, artificial grass cleaners are becoming more and more sophisticated and innovating new ways of countering pet waste odors. So, what are you waiting for?

Get the best artificial grass cleaner for pets and have a sophisticated, odor-free artificial turf yard right now! 

Content Strategist at Wizard Rank | Website | + posts

With outstanding experience as a content strategist, Nesar leads the team with exceptional strategies and techniques. He has a solid understanding of the company's marketing strategy and how it will be implemented on all platforms and has the capability to communicate that information effectively with other departments within the organization.
Further, with his deep understanding of marketing and relative fields he plans to the business goals will be achieved. For over a year, Nesar’s contribution to The Greenoma is unparalleled and his sheer skill and firm determination has made us who we are today.

Nesar Uddin Ahmad

With outstanding experience as a content strategist, Nesar leads the team with exceptional strategies and techniques. He has a solid understanding of the company's marketing strategy and how it will be implemented on all platforms and has the capability to communicate that information effectively with other departments within the organization. Further, with his deep understanding of marketing and relative fields he plans to the business goals will be achieved. For over a year, Nesar’s contribution to The Greenoma is unparalleled and his sheer skill and firm determination has made us who we are today.

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